From the last few days. Russia is claiming that they are very close to making the COVID-19 vaccine. Russian health minister says the vaccine will available for the general public before it clear the third and last phase of the clinical trial according to the report.

*According to a Bloomberg report Kirill Dmitriev, the chief executive of the government-backed Russian direct investment fund (RDIF). Russia is testing two different types of adenovirus vectors to reduce the chances of pre-existing immunity reducing the vaccine’s effectiveness.

*Dmitriev said Russia could make 30 million does domestically in 2020 and 170 million in abroad.

*The first new vaccine to enter human trials for COVID-19 was developed by the US firm Moderna therapeutic. About 35 other companies working for COVID-19 vaccines.

HOW VACCINE CAN BE DEVELOPED?

1- Understanding of the virus.

In the past, Most studies of human viruses looked at how the virus altered or affected in a human cell or animal cell in a lap scientists first identify basic components in virus-like structure the formation of proteins and sugar on the surface of viruses or infected cells. Then they study deeply about these proteins. That can be used to produce an immune response.

2-VACCINE CANDIDATES.

This process may include isolating the live virus. before inactivating or weakening it and then determining wheater this modified virus, which is known as vaccine candidate might produce immunity in people.

sometimes the live virus is not part of the process. Instead, its genetic sequences are used to make the vaccine.

3- PRE-CLINICAL TESTING.

For safety, purpose testing usually carried out in animals to give an idea of responses in humans. After that infected animal is on the surveillance of the scientists that allows researchers.That how the vaccine is working on the living body.

4-CLINICAL TRIAL TESTING IN HUMAN.

*After the successful trial of the vaccine in the animal.The trial begins with humans.

*Testing on a few dozen healthy volunteers, looking at how safe the vaccine is, and if it has any adverse effects.

*Testing on several hundred people for efficiency( target population who are ideally those at risk of the disease.)

*Testing on several thousand people for efficiency and safety.

*Trough these phases the vaccine needs to show it’s safe leads to a strong immune response.

REGULATORY APPROVALS.

*After all these trial all the legal procedure has to be done by following all the protocol.

*Then after the production of any vaccine can start.